Guaramacal National Park is found in Guaramacal Massif, also known as the Páramo of Rosario, in the eastern extreme of the Andes Mountain Range. It is located in the states of Trujillo and Portuguesa, between western longitude 70º 00' and 70º20' and northern latitude 9º05' and 9º21' (see map). It has an area of 21,466 hectares and ranges in elevation from 1,200 to 3,100 meters above sea level.Guaramacal has exuberant vegetation contained within the cloud forest and in the high montane shrub land called the Andean páramos. Guaramacal Massif possesses some of the most important geological formations of all the Andean Range, including formations from the Precambrian Period and more recently for the Tertiary Period. The park's physical relief is made up of very steep slopes (characteristic of the Andean Range), and shallow, low fertile soils that are high in organic content.
There are a number of caves in Guaramacal ideal for spelunking. Indigenous ceramics have also been found, giving the park high historic, and archeological value. There are also several waterfalls and lagoons. "Los Cedros" Lagoon, with its greenish waters and location at 1,800 meters above sea level, is visited frequently by tourists.
The climate is cool and humid. The temperature varies with height, dropping 6ºC every 1,000 meters. The average temperature for the lower altitudes is 20ºC while the average temperature for the higher altitudes is 12ºC. Annual precipitation in the park varies between 900 and 3,750 mm, depending on the section of the park. The plains region influences the weather on the southern slope and results in a dry season that lasts from November to March and a wet season that occurs from April to October.
Park vegetation is predominately dense cloud forest, with canopies between 7 and 18 meters high, and some emerging up to 25 meters. Epiphytes abound, and floristic composition and structure vary with altitude. The páramo habitat, with small trees no more than 8 meters tall, begins at 2,600 meters above sea level. The dominating species of the páramo is called "Frailejón" (Ruilopezia paltonoides).
Sixty-five percent of Guaramacal is part of the Boconó River Basin, which feeds into the Coromoto Reservoir, also known as the Tucupido. The water supply for the capital of the state of Portuguesa, Guanare, comes from the Coromoto Reservoir. Guaramacal National Park provides water to the city of Boconó and a number of small towns and campesino settlements in the region.