At this time, there are 16 people (four families) living inside of Guaramacal National Park. Two homes are located on the northern slope and two are located on the southern slope, all close to the park limits.
For as long as records have been kept, anthropogenic intervention in the park has been low enough that it has not caused changes in vegetation or relief. Towns and cities to the north of the park include Boconó (12,744 habitants), Los Pantanos (373 habitants), Mosquey (1,628 habitants), Batatal (1,279 habitants), and El Maciegal (193 habitants). Towns to the south include Guaramacal (165 habitants), Cunaviche (150 habitants) and San Rafael de Palo Alzao (185 habitants). Most of these communities were founded in the 19th Century, while Boconó, which was founded in 1592, is the oldest city close to the park. For the majority of these towns, coffee is the basis of their economies. Coffee farmers sell their coffee in Boconó. Other forms of agriculture in these towns is small-scale and done mostly for subsistence. North of the park there are certain zones with cattle farming, but only on a small scale. Several pastures with 5 to 10 cows are visible from the park.
Until today, the most important human influence has been the construction of a telecommunications station, located on the highest peak of the park, within the páramo, and the construction of the road leading to this station. The road connects Boconó to the station and then passes over the mountain to the town of Guaramacal. In order for the station to function, electrical cables have also been installed to provide energy. These cables run along side the road. This infrastructure was constructed 30 years ago, but affected areas show signs of high natural regeneration rates. The road is mostly used by the antenna technicians, local campesinos, and park visitors. It is not frequently used by the general public because it does not connect any major population centers, it is in poor condition and therefore not very safe for vehicles without four-wheel drive. As a result, this road does not pose a threat to the park.
Guaramacal is frequently visited by tourists who come mainly from Caracas, Trujillo and Zulia States and by some foreign tourists. Venezuelan tourists are mainly weekend visitors who like to travel with family to "Laguna de los Cedros." Foreign tourists are mainly birdwatchers attracted by Guaramacal's spectacular avifauna. Infrastructure at Guaramacal consists of 5 kiosks around the lake, a camping area and an information center at the entrance of the park. Visitors have to pay 3,000 Bolívares (3 USD) to use the kiosks and 2,500 (2.5 USD) for each tent into the camping area. About 18,000 tourists visited Guaramacal in year 2000, an average of 250 every weekend, which increased to 500 during the high season. Visitors do not pay entrance fees. There is no formal local tourism companies and tourism in the national park does not impact local economy directly, most of the tourists travel on their own or they come in tours organized by international or Caracas-based tour operators.
Guaramacal is easy to access via Boconó, an almost isolated colonial town located 50Km south -east from Trujillo City in straight line and 100 Km away through a spectacular mountain road. Coffee agriculture is the most important activity in Boconó which also has developed into an important regional handicraft center, specializing in pottery. Boconó also attracts thousands of visitors every year during Easter. Around Boconó and there are several hostels. To reach Guaramacal from Boconó a 4-wheel drive vehicle is needed.