Pui Pui Protected Forest consists of forests with entangled vegetation on very steep slopes and páramo in its highest altitude where vegetation is scarce and the landscape is less steep. It is extremely humid, with cloud forests covered by epiphytes and mosses. It is the source of many important watersheds in the region.
Studies on the area’s biodiversity do not exist. Nonetheless, because it is part of the Andean tropical humid forest, it probably has rich biodiversity and high endemism. The floristic composition is heterogeneous because of high ecological variety. Vulnerable or endangered species probably inhabit the protected area, including cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana) and the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus).
Because the protected area is extremely difficult to access, Pui Pui Protected Forest is not directly threatened. Presumably, cattle ranchers place a certain amount of pressure on the southern part of the protected area, although that does not necessarily amount to a significant threat. Pui Pui has no administration, no director or park guards or budget; as a result there is no vigilance or control. Areas surrounding the protected area continue to be colonized, deforested, and invaded. There is also a certain amount of timber extraction, mostly for fabricating fruit shipping boxes. Mining activities exist in the protected area’s zone of influence, as does a growing population. If these activities and tendencies are not controlled, within a few years, they could directly threaten the protected area.