Due to the fact Calipuy National Reserve is the most important remaining habitat for guanaco in Peru, maximum support is urgently need for its protection.
An exhaustive study needs to be made of the guanaco to be able to gauge their real population numbers, current situation, and to evaluate ecological aspects of the species such as fertility, lifespan, mating, feeding, natural predators, mortality, sickness, etc., to complement the knowledge acquired to date.
To lessen the potential danger of poaching, the administration of the protected area, together with the National Police need to implement a program to confiscate firearms from hunters who have no license, and monitor those who do.
The law must be obeyed, and precedents should be set by sanctioning those caught killing guanacos, selling body parts or simply caught with meat, skin, bones or guanaco young in their possession. The same should apply to poachers of spectacled bear, pumas, and condors. To implement legislation on this matter, direct coordination is needed between the area's administration, the National Police, the Deputy Prefect, and the local judge, among others. The local communities must be informed through a clear enforcement campaign that anyone caught poaching these animals will be sent to jail. The administration of the protected area must make an effort to capture poachers in the short term to establish a precedent to hopefully dissuade other poachers from continuing to affect protected fauna.
Burning and destruction of Puya Raimondi
More information is need to add to existing data to calculate the number of Puya Raimondi left, to establish their current state of conservation, and to evaluate their reproductive potential. The fieldwork of the study begun by the faculty of biological sciences at the University of Trujillo must be conducted. The local communities urgently need to be made aware of the need to respect and protect the Puya Raimondi, including guidelines for cattle management so as not affect the plant species.
As in the case of poaching, the administration of the sanctuary needs to be firm when it comes to sanctioning those caught destroying Puya Raimondi. Precedents need to be set and offenders sanctioned so that the locals realize that the regulations are to be taken seriously and that they should respect the authority of the personnel working in the protected area.
The people of Collayguida are aware that they must withdraw from the sanctuary. The meetings and signed agreement are proof of this. The administration of the sanctuary should take advantage of this situation and proceed immediately with resettlement before the momentum dies down and people change their minds. The Regional Department of Education must close down the Collayguida School, stop sending teachers and cease its functions. This would establish an additional element of pressure on the villagers to leave the sanctuary.
An alternative location for resettlement needs to be agreed upon quickly, after the corresponding consultation process with the population, before moving ahead with relocation. The administration of the protected area needs to coordinate with the PETT on the issue of land titling and allocation, and coordinate with regional organizations committed to supporting the relocation, before the offer is withdrawn.
INRENA must have clear jurisdiction over the buffer zone, including management and capacity to sanction those violate its regulations. The Intendency of Protected Natural Areas has often requested support from other entities that have jurisdiction to solve problems in the buffer zone and has yet to receive an effective response to its requests. This has made implementing solutions impossible and has created obstacles for the efficient administration of the protected areas. Therefore, all buffer zone activity must first receive approval from the Intendancy of Protected Natural Areas at INRENA. This means a shift in responsibilities, the departments of forestry, agriculture or other entities should no longer have first jurisdiction of buffer zone activities. They should help manage activities only after they are approved by INRENA. In addition, buffer zone management should include the reserve's support committees so that they are involved in the decisions regarding further encroachments in the area and unauthorized cattle in the reserve, among other issues.
The administration must round-up and confine livestock and then charge a fine per head of cattle captured. To be able to implement these steps, an organized system is urgently needed, with a set of sanctions and fines made official by INRENA to enable park rangers to crack down on unauthorized cattle. The set of regulations must explicitly include a list of violations and fines, and needs to be promulgated as soon as possible. The administration of the protected area must be strict in enforcing zoning regulations and in establishing order in the reserve's territory, and not permit users to violate established norms.
These protected areas are part of Peru's natural heritage. Some natural resources users within the reserve reap benefits at the cost of putting the entire area's integrity in jeopardy. In order for the reserve to receive compensation, and as a way of self-financing the area's management, the administration should consider a fee-system to charge for the use of grazing areas within the reserve. Guidelines and fee-scales need to be established per head of cattle that enter the reserve. This would help regulate the currently unregulated grazing system. Steep fees are not necessary, rather fees that match local income and the economic situation. Payment would mean a financial resource for the protected area, which unlike other parts of the country does not generate its own income.
The administration of the protected area needs to regulate the use and extraction of firewood by villagers. Villagers must be prevented from continuing to use Puya Raimondi as firewood. The administration must seek appropriate firewood alternatives and substitutes for local consumption. Reforestation programs urgently need to be implemented in buffer zone communities to satisfy local demand for firewood. The National Program for Management of Watersheds and Soil (Pronamachs) needs to maintain greater presence in the area and implement efficient reforestation and management programs in coordination with the local population. Participation from the support committees will be key in any program. First, the support committees should be responsible for approving any resource extraction, including any firewood extraction, from the protected areas. Second, they should begin reforestation projects and pasture restoration projects in their communities so that those excluded from extracting firewood and/or excluded from grazing in the area have viable alternatives.
Lack of vigilance and control
To ensure effective vigilance and control, more park rangers are urgently needed. We recommend at least 8-10 additional rangers for the National Reserve and five for the National Sanctuary. Greater logistical support is needed; we recommend a pick-up truck, two-way radios, solar panels, GPS equipment, and computers. At least one weapon is needed at each control post for security and to serve as a deterrent against armed poachers.
While the administration of the area needs to fill out paperwork and carry out institutional coordination in the region, its presence in Santiago de Chuco should be limited to a small office located in the Ministry of Agriculture's office. The protected areas' central office should be located in Cusipampa, because this town is halfway between the two protected areas. Cusipampa should also have a visitors' center. A control post is needed at Palo Redondo, southwest of the reserve, where it is suspected that poachers from the coast enter. Another control post is needed in Quebrada El Pallar, where there are large numbers of guanacos, and a third control post near Llacamate, due to the influence this community has on the reserve.
While the protected areas currently lack the necessary financing to be able to implement these recommendations to improve vigilance and control, there are several things that existing staff can do with existing infrastructure and equipment. Primarily, the existing control posts must be properly manned. The park rangers must maintain permanent presence in the protected areas.
We also recommend that the administrators turn to other sources of funding, as the budget provided by INRENA is insufficient. International donors should help Calipuy improve its vigilance and control system. International donors and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) must be informed about Calipuy's problems and needs. Currently, one organization called "Guanacon Group," is trying to raise international awareness to help save the guanacos (see PW news about this campaign at www.parkswatch.org). More such campaigns are essential. Once informed, the donors and NGOs need to respond and help Calipuy National Santuary and Calipuy National Reserve to effectively protect the guanacos and the Puya ramondis and to become conservation success stories rather than maintain their status quo as paper parks.