Asháninka Communal Reserve is one of the most pristine places on Earth. Numerous tributaries of the Ene River, flowing east to west from the Vilcabamba Mountain summits, create an intricate topography in the central part of the mountain range’s western slope. The communal reserve conserves the system that feeds the Tambo and Ene Rivers. It borders Otishi National Park and thereby maintains these rivers’ sources and protects their sub-watersheds, almost in their entirety.
The mountainous area is covered by tropical vegetation that differs in each of its altitudinal levels, overall encompassing a large amount of biodiversity. It contains sufficiently large ecosystems to protect adequate populations of uncommon species. Habitat diversity is extraordinary. The area has not been well studied; however there have been new species discoveries by scientists, which demonstrate the importance and priority of conducting research in this region. The predominant species are typical of tropical rainforests, with the presence of large mammals such as jaguars, tapirs, deer, wild pigs, and monkeys. Cedar and mahogany trees are among the reserve’s great floral diversity.
Up to this point, its geographic isolation and lack of access has guaranteed conservation of Asháninka Communal Reserve, which is currently not threatened, except for slight impacts in its extreme northwestern sector, near the confluence of the Perene and Ene Rivers. However, natural resource use tendencies and activities carried out in its surrounding areas threaten the future of the protected area. The principal threats are the migration and constant arrivals of colonists, timber extraction, road and timber road construction, presence of drug trafficking and terrorism, unsustainable natural resource use, the effects of a growing population, and lack of management implementation.