Laguna de Términos Flora and Fauna Protection Area is located in the costal zone of Campeche State, between San Pedro River and San Pablo River towards the west, in the municipalities of Carmen, Palizada and Champoton. It terms of water volume, sediment load, and extension, it is the largest estuarine-lagoon system in Mexico. The protection area is also part of the coastal plain ecological complex that controls the deltaic process of the mouths of the Grijalva-Usumacinta Rivers. Its marshes and wetlands, with those of Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve (which is to the immediate west of the protection area), form one of the most important coastal ecosystems in Mesoamerica, with notable natural productivity and biodiversity. The area is a mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation, critical habitat for commercially important fish species, and an important nesting site for marine turtles and migratory birds.
Laguna de Términos is biologically rich. Within the reserve, there are 15 vegetative associations, with a total of 374 species. Threatened floral species found in the reserve include the Bletia purpurea, Bravaisia integerrima, B. tublifora. Endangered flora species found within the reserve include the orchid Habenaria bractescens. Several other species have special consideration but are not classified as threatened or endangered and include red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) and buttonwood (Conocarpus erecta). There is also high fauna diversity, thanks in part to the productive and abundant vegetation. Fauna estimates suggest that there are at least 1,468 species (both terrestrial and aquatic). Among the aquatic mammals, in the reserve one can find bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and manatees (Trichechus manatus). Endangered species include jaguar (Panthera onca), black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), American crocodile (Cocodrylus acutus) and Morelet's crocodile (C. Moreletii). The hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), green turtle (Chelonia midas) and Kemp's Ridley turtle (Lepidochelys kempi) are under special protection.
ParksWatch determined that Laguna de Términos Flora and Fauna Protection Area is critically threatened, meaning that urgent solutions are needed to protect and maintain its biological diversity. The main threats affecting the area include petroleum exploration in the "Sonda" of Campeche, expanding grazing activities, traditional agriculture employing slash and burn techniques, illegal uses of forestry products such as mangroves, unregulated fishing, and contamination.