General information
Summary
Description
Threats
Recommended solutions
Conclusions
References

 

 

 

The TIPNIS is located in a highly biologically diverse region at the encounter of four ecoregions.


-  Seasonally flooded savannas (Llanos de Moxos): Unique in the world, they present affinities with the Pantanal and the Colombian plains. These are very extensive wetlands interspersed with island patches of Tabebuia insignis and characterized by an abundance of bird, mammal, and fish species. These very productive savannas are rich in gramineous and cyperaceous species. The numerous islands are covered with closed or open forest and the rivers are bordered by dense riparian forests which can reach several hundred meters away from the banks.


-  Sub-Andean Amazonian forest: this ecoregion includes an evergreen rainforest with several strata, a large variety of epiphytes, lianas, and Mauritia flexuosa palms. This is a transition zone where Amazonian and Andean species coincide (although Amazonian conditions tend to predominate). This forest probably harbors one of the largest numbers of endemic plant and animal species in the world.

 

-  Pre-Andean Amazonian forest: This region is characterized by tall forests of mostly evergreen species, interspersed with Mauritia flexuosa palms. Highly fragmented due to recent agricultural expansion in the foothills. This is a transition zone towards the sub-Andean forests. There are relatively few Andean species, but a notable one is Talauma boliviana, which is endemic and the only Magnoliaceae species in Bolivia.

-  Yungas cloud forest: Extraordinarily rich in species, this region is a diversity center for orchids and other sensitive species restricted to very humid conditions (such as ferns and briophytes), and also one of the country’s most important centers of endemism, especially at mid-level altitudes. These mid- to lowland evergreen cloud forests present mosaics of different successional stages due to numerous natural landslides. This region features distinct altitudinal strata composed of different plant associations, but the boundaries are often unclear and may vary in extension (Ibisch et al., 2003).

 

a) Flora

 

The TIPNIS harbors a very high diversity of plant species, among which some of the most representative are: mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), verdolago (Terminalia oblonga), and bibosi (Ficus sp.), urupi (Clarisia racemosa), ochoó (Hura crepitans), piraquina (Xylopia ligustrifolia), tajibo (Tabebuia heptaphylla), pico de gallo (Eritrina fusca), aquatic vegetation (Eleocharis elegans), papyrus (Cyperus giganteus and Oxycarium cubense), granadilla (Talauma boliviana) (Sandoval et al., 2003).

 

b) Fauna

 

The location of the TIPNIS in a transitional biogeographic region between the tropical Andes and the Amazonian plains, fosters an abundant diversity of habitats and animal species.
Very few inventories have been conducted inside the park and those that exist are rather outdated. The data presented below corresponds to studies completed in the early 1990s. Some of the area’s most charismatic species are:

 

- Medium and large mammals: spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), jaguar (Panthera onca), long-tailed otter (Lutra longicaudis), giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), marimono or spider monkey (Ateles Chamek), manechi or red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus), pejiche or giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant ant-eater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), tapir (Tapirus terrestris), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), and river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). 

 

- Reptiles: The predominant reptiles are the caiman (Caiman yacare), black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), land turtle (Geochelone carbonaria), Columbian tegus (Tupinambis sp.), iguana (Iguana iguana), several colubrids, pucarara or bushmaster (Lachesis muta), yoperojobobo (Bothrops santaecrusis), and Amazon coral snake (Micrurus spixii). 

 

      
        Couple of caimans (Caiman yacare). Photo: Loic Devaux (hereafter, LD)

 

- Amphibians: various species of the Hylidae family and other arboreal amphibian families, such as Ceratophys cornuta, Bufo sp., and Epipedobates pictus.

 

- Birds: toucan (Ramphastos toco), yellow parrot (Ara ararauna), red parrot (Ara chloroptera), mutún or Alagoas currassow (Crax mitu), piping guan (Pipile pipile), and harpy eagle (Harpía harpyja). The park is especially rich in migrating and aquatic bird species. 
 

- Fish: numerous Characiform and Siluriform species; Cichlidae (Perciforms) representing less than 4% of the fish species in the protected area.

 

                              Threatened species within the TIPNIS

 


     Species

Common name

IUCN category/
Bolivian Red Book

Endemism

Pteronura brasiliensis

Giant otter

Threatened

Wide endemism

Ateles chamek

Spider monkey

Vulnerable

Wide endemism

Priodontes maximus

Giant armadillo

Vulnerable

Wide endemism

Leopardus pardalis

Ocelot

Vulnerable

Endemic to the Americas

Panthera onca

Jaguar

Vulnerable

Endemic to the Neotropics

Tapirus terrestris

Tapir

Vulnerable

Wide endemism

Tayassu pecari

White-lipped peccary

Vulnerable

Endemic to the Neotropics

Tayassu tajacu

Collared peccary

Vulnerable

Endemic to the Americas

Blastocerus dichotomus

Marsh deer

Vulnerable

Wide endemism

Turdus haplochrous

Unicolored Thrush

Vulnerable

Restricted endemism

Grallaria erythrotis

Rufous-faced Antpitta

Vulnerable

Restricted endemism

Source: SERNAP, 2002. National Database (BANDA).

 

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